Fluoride in Drinking Water


Fluorine is a natural trace element and exists in almost all soils. In elemental form fluorine is a flammable, irritating, and toxic halogen gas that is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents known. It therefore occurs naturally only in the reduced (fluoride, F) form in combination with other minerals. Fluoride is classified as any binary compound of fluorine with another element. Fluoride compounds make up approximately 0.08 percent of the earth’s crust. Fluorspar, cryolite, and fluorapatite are the most common fluoride producing compounds known. Fluorspar contains the highest percentage of fluoride by weight, as calcium fluoride (CaF2), of the minerals mentioned. Perhaps the most widely known use of fluoride is its addition to public drinking water supplies at about one milligram per liter (mg/L) of a fluoride salt, measured as fluoride, for the purpose of reducing tooth decay. This is achieved at the municipal treatment plant by injecting or feeding a solution of Hydrofluosilicic acid, sodium silicofluoride, or sodium fluoride into the treated water stream. It is the fluoride ion in mineral ionic form that occurs in water, bones, teeth, and public drinking water supplies.

Fluoride can have an adverse effect on tooth enamel and may give rise to mild dental fluorosis (prevalence: 12–33%) at drinking-water concentrations between 0.9 and 1.2 mg/liter. Elevated fluoride intakes can also have more serious effects on skeletal tissues. Skeletal fluorosis (with adverse changes in bone structure) may be observed when drinking-water contains 3–6 mg of fluoride per liter. Several epidemiological studies are available on the possible association between fluoride in drinking-water and cancer rates among the population. Point-of-Use filters with reverse osmosis technology is an excellent choice for the reduction of fluoride. This article discusses the features of the APEC RO-90 reverse osmosis system.


The RO-90 Under Sink Reverse Osmosis Water Filter System uses advanced five- stage reverse osmosis water filtration process that helps provide cleaner, better tasting drinking water for drinking, coffee, tea, baby formula, cooking and more. The five -stage procedure is described as follows:

  • 1st stage – High-Grade high-capacity polypropylene sediment filter —removes dust, particles, and rust. Protects and extends the life of the membrane and system.
  • 2nd Stage – Premium Extruded Carbon Block —gets rid of unpleasant chlorine, tastes, odors, cloudiness and colors. Also removes VOCs and other common chemicals from the water.
  • 3rd Stage – Premium Extruded Carbon Block —gets rid of unpleasant chlorine, tastes, odors, cloudiness and colors. Also removes VOCs and other common chemicals from the water.
  • 4th Stage- Select FILMTEC (Dow Chemical) High Rejection TFC reverse osmosis membrane. Removes up to 99% of total dissolved solids (TDS) and contaminants such as arsenic, lead, fluoride, chromium, radium, bacteria, viruses and much more.
  • 5th Stage- Advanced Coconut Shell Refining Carbon 10″ — TCR (Total Contamination Removal) filter removes any possible residual taste from the tank.
  • RO System Components Standard with system: Quick-Connect fittings; stainless steel check valve; clog-free flow restrictor; 5 feet of food grade tubing & versatile 1/2” to 3/8” feed water adapters. High quality lead-free faucet & 4-gallon pressurized tank also included.
  • Complete Installation Hardware: Wrench, tank ball valve, feed water valve, drain saddle, inserts, Teflon tape, and manuals. Ice-maker kit option is available at checkout

The RO-90 is the most durable system in the industry to guarantee water safety and health. It is tested and certified by the WQA to remove up to 99 percent of contaminants such as chlorine, taste, odor, volatile organic compounds as well as toxic fluoride, arsenic, lead, nitrates, and heavy metals. The stage 1, 2, and 3 filters require replacement between 6 months to 12 months. The stage 4 (RO membrane) and stage 5 filter elements are replaced at 2 to 3 years intervals depending upon the quality of influent water. The best way to evaluate the water quality and age of filter is to use a TDS (total dissolved solid) meter test. The RO-90 system comes with modern-design lead free-chrome finish faucet makes kitchen counter-top look great with great leak free experience.

To maximize system performance and efficiency, regularly scheduled maintenance including replacement of the filter cartridges at the required interval, at the rated capacity, or sooner if a reduction in water flow occurs is required. Filter life is dependent on actual use and incoming water quality. Table 1 summarizes the contaminant reduction claim for the RO-90 model.


Reverse osmosis filtration system is one of the most extensive methods of filtration. It removes a broad range of contaminants such as fluoride, total dissolved solids (TDS), chlorine taste and odor, organic compounds, sediment, and cysts. Sani Water are one of the exclusive suppliers and consultants APEC Water Filtration Products particularly the APEC RO-90 Under Sink Reverse Osmosis Water Filter System.


Saniwater can help their customers with suitable recommendations for organic matter removal and to resolve taste and odor issues.  The technicians can also help with installation of the recommended filter products. Sani Water is dedicated to offer best solutions to meet the drinking water requirements of their customers.


  1. https://www.wqa.org/Portals/0/Technical/Technical%20Fact%20Sheets/2014_Fluoride.pdf
  2. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/fluoride.pdf
  3. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/water-fluoridation-and-cancer-risk.html
  4. https://www.freedrinkingwater.com/ro-90-detail.htm
  5. https://www.freedrinkingwater.com/faq.htm#1

Meet our Expert

Abhiram Satyadev has a Masters in Environmental Engineering at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, an MBA at Goldey Beacom College in Delaware, and a Masters Certificate in Standford University. He is currently the Program Manager, Potomac Interceptor for the DC Water in Washington DC. He is responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining the Potomac Interceptor Renewal Facility specifically including operation and maintenance of odor control facilities at the Potomac Interceptor Sites and Pump Stations.

With Saniwater, he serves as our Research and Development Consultant and provides us with insights into his expertise. Read his section here on www.saniwater.com to know more.