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Nitrification is a microbial process by which reduced nitrogen compounds (primarily ammonia) are sequentially oxidized to nitrite and nitrate. Ammonia is present in drinking water through either naturally occurring processes or through ammonia addition during secondary disinfection to form chloramines. The nitrification process is primarily accomplished by two groups of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria that can...
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Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that combines with other elements to form inorganic mercury compounds. Mercury also combines with carbon to make organic mercury compounds. The major source of mercury is from natural degassing of the earth’s crust. Mercury in water has the potential to cause kidney damage from short-term exposures at levels above the maximum...
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Phosphates are chemical compounds containing phosphorus. Phosphorus is a non-metallic element which is necessary for life and is found in rock as inorganic phosphates. As water runs over and through rocks it carries off small amounts of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and phosphates. Inorganic phosphates are a plant nutrient and are taken in by...
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Legionella are small gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria. Over 40 individual species of Legionella are known. Most of the human infections are caused by the species Legionella pneumophila. Legionella pneumophila was first discovered following a pneumonia outbreak at the 1976 Convention of the American Legion in Philadelphia Legionella is found everywhere in the environment and is a...
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Perchlorate is both a naturally occurring as well as a man-made inorganic chemical that consists of one chlorine atom bonded to four oxygen atoms (ClO4–). Manufactured forms of perchlorate include perchloric acid and salts such as ammonium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and potassium perchlorate. Perchlorate is an oxidizer used in the manufacturing of fireworks, explosives, and...
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Chloramines are a group of chemical compounds that contain chlorine and ammonia. The particular type of chloramine used in drinking water disinfection is called monochloramine. Monochloramine is mixed into water in levels that kill germs but are still safe to drink. Chloramination is the process of adding chloramine to drinking water to disinfect it and...
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Fluorine is a natural trace element and exists in almost all soils. In elemental form fluorine is a flammable, irritating, and toxic halogen gas that is one of the most powerful oxidizing agents known. It therefore occurs naturally only in the reduced (fluoride, F–) form in combination with other minerals. Fluoride is classified as any...
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Atrazine is an herbicide that selectively controls broadleaf (dicot) weeds, such as pigweed, cocklebur, velvet leaf and certain grass weeds in fields of corn and sorghum. Selective control means that the target weeds are controlled, with little or no injury to the crop. Atrazine is well tolerated by actively growing corn and sorghum, which absorb...
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SOURCE AND IMPACT OF METHANE IN DRINKING WATER Methane (CH4), often called marsh gas, is the primary component of natural gas. It is commonly found where landfills once existed and is generated from decaying of plants or other carbon based matter. It can also be found in and around oil fields. Methane is colorless, odorless,...
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Refrigerator water filters remove the contaminants and other particulates from the water that goes through the refrigerator’s water and ice dispenser. Water travels through miles of underground pipes before ever reaching homes or businesses. Along the way, it may collect lead from old pipes, agricultural runoff, and other harmful compounds. Most refrigerator filters are designed...
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